What is functional testing in QA – QA House

Every project creates a document listing functional or necessity specifications during the planning phase. It is a list of what the app/system/website is meant to do from the user’s point of view. In this article, we will talk about functional testing in QA, types, and how to perform one.


What is functional testing in QA?

Functional testing is a type of black-box testing that you can use to ensure that an application’s or system’s functionality is as intended.

You can perform it to ensure that an application’s functionality is complete.

There must be a standard that describes what is and is not proper behavior.

A functional or necessity specification specifies this. It is a document that specifies what a user can do so that he can establish the application’s or system’s compliance with it.

Functional Testing Types

You can use many functional testing categories depending on the situation.

Unit Testing

Unit testing is typically performed by a developer who writes various code units that may or may not be related to achieving specific functionality.

Typically, this involves writing unit tests that call the methods for each unit and confirm them when you carry out the necessary parameters and the return value is as anticipated.

Sanity Testing

Testing to make sure that all of the application’s/major systems and critical functionalities are working properly. This is usually done following a smoke test.

Smoke Testing

After each build release, you can perform testing to ensure the build’s stability. Build verification testing is another name for it.

Regression Testing

If you need to modify any component, module, or function, you must ensure that the entire system works properly after the changes. Regression testing is the process of testing the entire system after such adjustments.

Integration Testing

After integrating the modules, you must determine whether the combined modules function properly. This is integration testing. This type of testing requires fewer resources than unit testing.

Beta Testing

A small number of actual users or clients conduct it in a real-world user environment to ensure that the software is error-free and runs fine. You can make some modifications to improve the software after gathering constructive criticism and feedback from those users.

Usability testing

Usability testing is the process of determining how user-friendly an app is. It entails determining how functional or user-friendly the app is. It is determined whether or not any user can use your software without getting tangled.

Functional System Testing

System Testing

Is a type of testing that you can carry out on an entire system to ensure that it functions as anticipated after you incorporated all modules or elements.

End-to-end Testing

End-to-end testing refers to the functional testing of the entire software system. It refers to the process of testing the entire software system.

End-to-end tests require fewer resources than integration tests.

The process

This testing procedure consists of three major steps:

  • Create test data
  • Execute test cases
  • Comparing the actual and expected results

The involved steps

The following are the various stages required in this testing:

→Establish the functionality

The first step is to establish the functionality of the product that must you must test. It includes testing the basic functionality, error conditions, and messages, as well as usability testing, which determines if the product is user-friendly or not.

→Generate the input data

The next step is to generate the input data for the specifications to test the functionality.

→Determined result

The outcome of the functionality under test is eventually determined based on the requirement.

→Comparing the actual and expected results

You can compare actual output and desired outputs to establish the extent to which functionality is functioning as expected.

How to approach functional testing in QA

It is divided into four sections:

  1. Test summary
  2. Pre-requisites
  3. Test Steps and
  4. Expected results.

Trying to write every type of test is not only inconceivable but also time-consuming and costly.

Generally, we would want to find as many bugs as possible while avoiding any escapes from existing tests. As a result, the QA must employ optimization techniques and plan their approach to testing.

Functional Test Automation

Manual effort can be lowered, saved time, bug slippage prevented, and efficiency can be improved with automation.

However, it is impossible to automate everything. This testing can be automated, but the user must create test cases for the automation to operate. It’s critical to select the right test cases to automate, as well as a suitable tool.

The disadvantage of automating functional cases is that if the number of test cases is large and must be regressed repeatedly, the developer may have difficulty ready to commit changes to the code.

When doing defect escape analysis, the most common and persistent cause of escapes appears to be a lack of test coverage in a specific function.

Aspects for Automation

→Choose the appropriate Automation Tool

There are numerous tools available on the market; selecting an automation tool is a difficult challenge! You could, even so, create a list of specifications from which you can choose which automation tool to use.

Some of the best functional test tools are listed below:

  • Selenium
  • QTP
  • Junit
  • Loadrunner
  • SoapUI
  • TestComplete

→Select the appropriate test cases to automate

If you want to make the most of automation, you must be selective about the tests you choose to automate.

You can automate tests that must be run repeatedly, with different types of data, with errors, and so on.

→Automation Specialists

Each team member has a unique set of expertise, technical skills, interests, and bandwidth to support automation. Some people may be better at performing manual tests, while others may be familiar with scripting and automation tools.

In scenarios like this, it’s a good idea to conduct an audit of the entire team and devote some members solely to automation.

→Data-Driven Tests

Automated test cases require various sets of data must be well written to be reused.

As to the data source, generating well-structured automation data simplifies framework maintenance and allows established test scripts to be utilized to their maximum potential.

→Changes to the user interface must not break tests

The test cases you write with the chosen tool must be adaptable to potential Updates. As a result, it’s essential to recognize the tool’s shortcomings ahead of time and write test cases so that UI changes require only minor changes.

→Regular Testing

Once you’ve created a basic automation test bucket, plan on running it more frequently.

Advantages of functional testing in QA

This testing replicates or is a replica of the actual system, — in other words, it is a replica of the product in the live environment. Testing is centered on requirements based on customer utilization, such as system specifications, operating systems, browsers, and so on.

It makes sure that a high-quality product is delivered that fulfills the customer’s requirements and that the customer is pleased with the outcome.

It guarantees the delivery of a bug-free product with all functionalities functioning as expected by the customer.


Functional testing in QA is an essential testing process because it validates a product’s functionality, as this is the most essential part of any product or application.

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